Python OS Module

  • The Python OS Module provides an interface with an underlying operating system that Python is running and it can be Windows, Mac or Linux.
  • It helps us to automate tasks like creating or removing directories

To get the current working directory

>>> os.getcwd()

To change directory

>>> os.chdir("/tmp")

To verify it

>>> os.getcwd()

To list directories

>>> os.listdir()
['systemd-private-929d26066ab64d9892496c0b5e05dbb6-systemd-timesyncd.service-JrC3MC', '.X1-lock', '.Test-unix', 'pulse-PKdhtXMmr18n', 'systemd-private-929d26066ab64d9892496c0b5e05dbb6-systemd-resolved.service-DXvPLp', '.X11-unix', '.XIM-unix', '.ICE-unix', 'ssh-54k5Trn8h27F', '.font-unix', 'systemd-private-929d26066ab64d9892496c0b5e05dbb6-rtkit-daemon.service-FethN5', '.xfsm-ICE-MJ54F0']

OR you can pass the path in the command

>>> os.listdir("/home/cloud_user")
['.profile', 'rest.yml', 'openssl', '.bash_history', '.kube', 'alpine.yml', '.ICEauthority', 'Documents', 'kubernetes-metrics-server', '.gvfs', 'Downloads', 'Music', 'kubernetes', '.bash_logout', 'regex', 'Public', '.viminfo', '.gnupg', 'Desktop', 'Videos', '.Xauthority', '.vnc', '.python_history', '.sudo_as_admin_successful', 'metrics-server', '.local', '.dbus', 'Pictures', '.mozilla', 'Templates', '.cache', '.config', 'multicontainer.yml', '.ssh', 'pod.yml', '.lesshst', '.bashrc']

To make directories

>>> os.mkdir("/tmp/testdir")

To create directory recursively

>>> os.makedirs("/tmp/a/b")

If you try to create directory recursively using os.mkdir you will get this error

>>> os.mkdir("/tmp/c/d")
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
FileNotFoundError: [Errno 2] No such file or directory: '/tmp/c/d'

To remove a file

>>> os.remove("pod.yml")

To remove a directory

>>> os.rmdir("/tmp/e")

To remove a directory recursively

>>> os.removedirs("/tmp/c/d")

To rename the file or directory

>>> os.rename("/tmp/xyz","/tmp/abc")

To get the environment variable information

>>> os.environ
environ({'LS_COLORS': 'rs=0:di=01;34:ln=01;36:mh=00:pi=40;33:so=01;35:do=01;35:bd=40;33;01:cd=40;33;01:or=40;31;01:mi=00:su=37;41:sg=30;43:ca=30;41:tw=30;42:ow=34;42:st=37;44:ex=01;32:*.tar=01;31:*.tgz=01;31:*.arc=01;31:*.arj=01;31:*.taz=01;31:*.lha=01;31:*.lz4=01;31:*.lzh=01;31:*.lzma=01;31:*.tlz=01;31:*.txz=01;31:*.tzo=01;31:*.t7z=01;31:*.zip=01;31:*.z=01;31:*.Z=01;31:*.dz=01;31:*.gz=01;31:*.lrz=01;31:*.lz=01;31:*.lzo=01;31:*.xz=01;31:*.zst=01;31:*.tzst=01;31:*.bz2=01;31:*.bz=01;31:*.tbz=01;31:*.tbz2=01;31:*.tz=01;31:*.deb=01;31:*.rpm=01;31:*.jar=01;31:*.war=01;31:*.ear=01;31:*.sar=01;31:*.rar=01;31:*.alz=01;31:*.ace=01;31:*.zoo=01;31:*.cpio=01;31:*.7z=01;31:*.rz=01;31:*.cab=01;31:*.wim=01;31:*.swm=01;31:*.dwm=01;31:*.esd=01;31:*.jpg=01;35:*.jpeg=01;35:*.mjpg=01;35:*.mjpeg=01;35:*.gif=01;35:*.bmp=01;35:*.pbm=01;35:*.pgm=01;35:*.ppm=01;35:*.tga=01;35:*.xbm=01;35:*.xpm=01;35:*.tif=01;35:*.tiff=01;35:*.png=01;35:*.svg=01;35:*.svgz=01;35:*.mng=01;35:*.pcx=01;35:*.mov=01;35:*.mpg=01;35:*.mpeg=01;35:*.m2v=01;35:*.mkv=01;35:*.webm=01;35:*.ogm=01;35:*.mp4=01;35:*.m4v=01;35:*.mp4v=01;35:*.vob=01;35:*.qt=01;35:*.nuv=01;35:*.wmv=01;35:*.asf=01;35:*.rm=01;35:*.rmvb=01;35:*.flc=01;35:*.avi=01;35:*.fli=01;35:*.flv=01;35:*.gl=01;35:*.dl=01;35:*.xcf=01;35:*.xwd=01;35:*.yuv=01;35:*.cgm=01;35:*.emf=01;35:*.ogv=01;35:*.ogx=01;35:*.aac=00;36:*.au=00;36:*.flac=00;36:*.m4a=00;36:*.mid=00;36:*.midi=00;36:*.mka=00;36:*.mp3=00;36:*.mpc=00;36:*.ogg=00;36:*.ra=00;36:*.wav=00;36:*.oga=00;36:*.opus=00;36:*.spx=00;36:*.xspf=00;36:', 'LESSCLOSE': '/usr/bin/lesspipe %s %s', 'LANG': 'C.UTF-8', 'XDG_SESSION_ID': '5', 'HUSHLOGIN': 'FALSE', 'USER': 'cloud_user', 'PWD': '/home/cloud_user', 'HOME': '/home/cloud_user', 'XDG_DATA_DIRS': '/usr/local/share:/usr/share:/var/lib/snapd/desktop', 'MAIL': '/var/mail/cloud_user', 'REMOTEHOST': 'localhost', 'SHELL': '/bin/bash', 'TERM': 'xterm-256color', 'SHLVL': '1', 'LOGNAME': 'cloud_user', 'DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS': 'unix:path=/run/user/1001/bus', 'XDG_RUNTIME_DIR': '/run/user/1001', 'PATH': '/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin:/usr/games:/usr/local/games:/snap/bin', 'LESSOPEN': '| /usr/bin/lesspipe %s', '_': '/usr/bin/python3'})

To get the userid

>>> os.getuid()

To get the groupid

>>> os.getgid()

To get the current shell process id

>>> os.getpid()

To execute the shell command

>>> os.system("clear")

NOTE: If you try to save the output of the command in a variable, it will not work with os module , it only store the return code eg: 0 for successfully executed command in this case or non-zero for unsuccessful command.

>>> rt=os.system("ls")
Desktop  Documents  Downloads  Music  Pictures	Public	Templates  Videos  alpine.yml  kubernetes  kubernetes-metrics-server  metrics-server  multicontainer.yml  openssl  regex  rest.yml
>>> print(rt)

OS Path

  • os.path is a sub module of OS
  • os.path module is used to work on paths

Returns the final component of a pathname

>>> os.path.basename("/etc/ldap/ldap.conf")

Returns the directory component of a pathname

>>> os.path.dirname("/etc/ldap/ldap.conf")

Join two or more pathname components

>>> os.path.join("/home","abc")

Let’s try to do the same with os.path.join,

>>> "home" + "abc"

As you can, with os.path.join intelligently add the seperator between the two path based on the Operating System.

Split a pathname. Returns tuple “(head, tail)” where “tail” is everything after the final slash.

>>> os.path.split("/home/abc")
('/home', 'abc')

Return the size of a file

>>> os.path.getsize("/etc/ldap/ldap.conf")

NOTE: It returns the size in terms of bytes.

Test whether a path exists. Returns False for broken symbolic links

>>> os.path.exists("/etc/resolv.conf")

Test whether a path is a regular file

>>> os.path.isfile("/etc/resolv.conf")

Return true if the pathname refers to an existing directory

>>> os.path.isdir("/etc")

This is especially helpful, in checking if the file exists before performing any operation on the top of it.

import os

if os.path.exists(path):
    print("File exists")
    print("File doesn't exists")

NOTE: I showed the above example using os.path.exists but if we are specifically looking for file we can use os.path.isfile.

Test whether a path is a symbolic link

>>> os.path.islink("/etc/localtime")

OS Walk

  • It’s used to generates the file names in a directory tree by walking the tree either top-down or bottom-up.
>>> import os
>>> os.walk("/home/prashant")
<generator object walk at 0x7f87f75545c8>

NOTE: It creates a generator object. To convert it into list

>>> list(os.walk("/home/prashant"))
[('/home/prashant', [], [])]
  • From a given path, Python is generating a list which contains tuples and each tuple consist of three values
  • First value is the path we have given “‘/home/prashant'”
  • Second Value is the list of directories in a given list
  • Third is list of files in a given directory

Let say in a given path, I will create some files and directories

 sudo tree
├── ashish
│   └── abhya
├── pankaj
│   └── newtestfile
└── test1

You will see the output like this

>>> list(os.walk("/home/prashant"))
[('/home/prashant', ['ashish', 'pankaj'], ['test1']), ('/home/prashant/ashish', [], ['abhya']), ('/home/prashant/pankaj', [], ['newtestfile'])]
  • If we are going to run the for loop on the top of it, we will get the same output
>>> for path in os.walk("/home/prashant"):
...     print(path)
('/home/prashant', ['ashish', 'pankaj'], ['test1'])
('/home/prashant/ashish', [], ['abhya'])
('/home/prashant/pankaj', [], ['newtestfile'])

As you can see in the above output we are getting the tuple back. As we know we can unpack the tuple

>>> for rootpath, dirpath, filepath in os.walk("/home/prashant"):
...     print(rootpath)

In the above example, I am only getting the root path back. If we want files in that path

>>> for rootpath, dirpath, filepath in os.walk("/home/prashant"):
...     print(rootpath, filepath)
/home/prashant ['test1']
/home/prashant/ashish ['abhya']
/home/prashant/pankaj ['newtestfile']
  • The important scenario is where we want to join the top level directory with file
import os

for rootfile, dirname, filename in os.walk(path):
    for file in filename:
        print(os.path.join(rootfile, file))

and the output will be simply

$ python3 

We can also extend this concept to search for a particular file

import os
file_search=input("Please enter the filename to search: ")
for rootfile, dirname, filename in os.walk(path):
    for file in filename:
        if file == file_search:  
            print(os.path.join(rootfile, file))

Please join me with my journey by following any of the below links

Certified Kubernetes Administrator (CKA) – Day 1


  • Docker
  • Basics of Kubernetes(POD’s, Services, Deployments)
  • YAML
  • Linux Command line and setting up Linux Machine

Certified Kubernetes Administrator

  • Kubernetes Certification is hands-on
  • Exam Details
  • Exam Cost: $300(One Free Re-take within Next 12 month)
  • Online Exam
  • Exam Duration: 3hr(~24 Question)
  • The version of Kubernetes running in the exam environment: v1.16
  • Passing score: 74%
  • Resources allowed during the exam:

Useful Resources

Certified Kubernetes Administrator:

Exam Curriculum (Topics):

Candidate Handbook:

Exam Tips:


Kubernetes Cluster Architecture

What is Kubernetes?

Official Definition

Kubernetes is a portable, extensible, open-source platform for managing containerized workloads and services, that facilitates both declarative configuration and automation.

Kubernets comes from the Greek word meaning Helmsman – the person who steers a ship. The theme is reflected in the logo.

At the high-level overview, we have two major components

  • Kubernetes Master: Manage, Plan, Schedule, and monitor nodes
  • Kubernetes Nodes: Host application as containers

Other Components:


  • Think of it like Database which stores cluster information(Nodes, PODs, Configs, Secrets, Accounts, Roles, Bindings,…) in key-value format about the cluster.
  • Listen on Port 2379 by default.
  • Every information we see when we run kubectl get command is from ETCD server.
  • Every change we are doing to our cluster eg: Deploying additional nodes, pods , replica sets are updated in etcd server.
  • Only when its updated in etcd change is considered to be complete.
  • Deployed via kubeadm(kubectl get pods -n kube-system –> etcd-master).
  • kubectl exec etcd-master -n kube-system etcdctl get / –prefix -keys-only.
  • Use the RAFT protocol.
$ kubectl get pods -n kube-system |grep -i etcd                      1/1     Running   4          9d


Identify the right node to place a container depending on the worker node capacity, taints or toleration.

  • The scheduler is only responsible for deciding which POD goes on which node, it doesn’t actually place the pod on the node it’s the job of the kubelet.
  • The scheduler is only responsible for deciding which POD goes on which node, it doesn’t actually place the pod on the node it’s the job of the kubelet.
  • The way scheduler places pod on nodes

Filter Nodes: Requirement raised by POD

Rank Nodes: Depending upon the CPU and Memory

$ kubectl get pods -n kube-system
NAME                                                  READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE            1/1     Running   5          11d
  • Or you can check the running process
$ ps aux|grep -i kube-scheduler
root      2019  0.7  0.4 139596 34428 ?        Ssl  01:42   0:22 kube-scheduler --address= --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/scheduler.conf --leader-elect=true

Controller Manager

  • Manages various controller in Kubernetes

1: Replication Controller: It monitors the status of replicasets, to make sure the desired number of pods always running in the set. If pod dies it creates another one.

2: Node Controller:

  • It monitors the status of nodes every 5s
  • Node monitor grace period = 40s
  • POD eviction timeout = 5m
$ kubectl get pods -n kube-system
NAME                                                  READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   1/1     Running   5          11d
  • To see the effective process
$ ps aux|grep -i kube-controller-manager
root      2095  2.3  1.1 205516 93028 ?        Ssl  01:42   0:56 kube-controller-manager --address= --allocate-node-cidrs=true --authentication-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/controller-manager.conf --authorization-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/controller-manager.conf --client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt --cluster-cidr= --cluster-signing-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt --cluster-signing-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.key --controllers=*,bootstrapsigner,tokencleaner --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/controller-manager.conf --leader-elect=true --node-cidr-mask-size=24 --requestheader-client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/front-proxy-ca.crt --root-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt --service-account-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/sa.key --use-service-account-credentials=true
cloud_u+  2263  0.0  0.0  14988  2652 pts/1    R+   02:22   0:00 grep --color=auto -i kube-controller-manager

Kube ApiServer

  • Is responsible for how these components talk to each other. It exposes Kube Api which is used by an external user to perform cluster operation.
  • When we run any kubectl command(eg: kubectl get nodes) behind the scene
kubectl --> kube-apiserver(authenticate and validate the request) --> ETCD Cluster(retrieve data) --> Response back with the requested data
  • kubeApi Server is the only component that interacts directly with ETCD datastore.
  • If installed via kubeadm(kubectl get pods -n kube-system)
$ kubectl get pods -n kube-system
NAME                                                  READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE            1/1     Running   5          11d
  • OR you can check the process
$ ps aux|grep -i kube-api
root      2125  2.9  3.2 446884 261124 ?       Ssl  01:42   0:58 kube-apiserver --authorization-mode=Node,RBAC --advertise-address= --allow-privileged=true --client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/ca.crt --enable-admission-plugins=NodeRestriction --enable-bootstrap-token-auth=true --etcd-cafile=/etc/kubernetes/pki/etcd/ca.crt --etcd-certfile=/etc/kubernetes/pki/apiserver-etcd-client.crt --etcd-keyfile=/etc/kubernetes/pki/apiserver-etcd-client.key --etcd-servers= --insecure-port=0 --kubelet-client-certificate=/etc/kubernetes/pki/apiserver-kubelet-client.crt --kubelet-client-key=/etc/kubernetes/pki/apiserver-kubelet-client.key --kubelet-preferred-address-types=InternalIP,ExternalIP,Hostname --proxy-client-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/front-proxy-client.crt --proxy-client-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/front-proxy-client.key --requestheader-allowed-names=front-proxy-client --requestheader-client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/front-proxy-ca.crt --requestheader-extra-headers-prefix=X-Remote-Extra- --requestheader-group-headers=X-Remote-Group --requestheader-username-headers=X-Remote-User --secure-port=6443 --service-account-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/ --service-cluster-ip-range= --tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/apiserver.crt --tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/pki/apiserver.key
  • Container Runtime Engine: eg: Docker or Rkt(Rocket)


  • Is an agent that runs on each node in the cluster, it listens for instruction from KubeApi Server and deploys/destroy node on the cluster. KubeApi server periodically fetches status reports from kubelet to monitor the status of the node and docker. It registers the node to the Kubernetes cluster.

NOTE: Kubeadm doesn’t deploy Kubelets.

To check the status of kubelet agent

$ systemctl status kubelet
● kubelet.service - kubelet: The Kubernetes Node Agent
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
  Drop-In: /etc/systemd/system/kubelet.service.d
   Active: active (running) since Mon 2020-01-27 01:41:58 UTC; 54min ago
 Main PID: 785 (kubelet)
    Tasks: 17 (limit: 2318)
   CGroup: /system.slice/kubelet.service
           └─785 /usr/bin/kubelet --bootstrap-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/bootstrap-kubelet.conf --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf --config=/var/lib/kubelet/config.yaml --cgroup-driver=cgroupfs --n


$ ps aux|grep -i kubelet
 root       785  2.3  4.2 1345380 85736 ?       Ssl  01:41   1:17 /usr/bin/kubelet --bootstrap-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/bootstrap-kubelet.conf --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.conf --config=/var/libkubelet/config.yaml --cgroup-driver=cgroupfs --network-plugin=cni --resolv-conf=/run/systemd/resolve/resolv.conf


  • Think of it like POD Network, how POD in a cluster can communicate with each other.
  • It make sure each nodes gets its own unique IP address and implement local IPTABLES or IPVS rules to handle routing and load balancing of traffic on the Pod network.
$ kubectl get pods -n kube-system
NAME                                                  READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
kube-proxy-4lvxx                                      1/1     Running   4          11d
kube-proxy-7w6p4                                      1/1     Running   4          11d
kube-proxy-tfrwv                                      1/1     Running   5          11d


  • Containers are encapsulated in the form of Kubernetes objects known as POD. Pod itself doesn’t actually run anything, it’s just a sandbox for hosting containers.
  • In other terms it provides the share execution environment with has a set of resources that are shared by every container that is the part of POD(eg: IP addresses, ports, hostnames, sockets, memory, volumes etc)
  • A POD is a single instance of an application, it’s the smallest object we can create in kubernetes. You cannot run a container directly on a Kubernetes cluster- containers must always run inside the Pods.
  • To see the list of pods
$ kubectl get pods
NAME                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
nginx-7cdbd8cdc9-tzbk6   1/1     Running   1          3d22h

Creating a POD using YAML file

  • Kubernetes uses yaml file as an input to create object like POD, ReplicaSet, Deployments etc.
  • This yaml file is then POST to the API server.
  • API Server examines the file, write it to etcd store and then scheduler deploys it to the healthy node with enough available resources.
  • YAML file always contains these four top level fields
  • apiVersion: Version of kubernetes api we use to create an object, depending upon the type of object we are trying to create.
  • Think of version field as defining the schema, newer is usually better.
  • kind: Refer to the type of object we are trying to create in this case Pod. Other possible values are Service, ReplicaSet, Deployment.
  • metadata: Refer to the data about the object
  name: mytest-pod
    app: mytestapp

In the above example, the name of our pod is mytest-pod(which is a string) and then we are assigning labels to it which is a dictionary and it can be any key-value pairs.

  • Spec: Now we are going to specify the container or image we need in the POD.
    - name: mynginx-container
      image: nginx 

In the above example we are giving our container a name mynginx container and asking it to pull the image from dockerhub.

Note (-) in the front of name, which indicate it’s a list and we can specify multiple containers here.

Once we have the file ready we can deploy pod using

kubectl create -f <filename>.yml
  • Once the pod is create you can verify it using
$ kubectl get pods
NAME                     READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
my-test-pod              1/1     Running   0          3m10s
  • You can add –watch flag to the kubectl get pods command so that you can monitor it.
  • -o wide flag gives couple of more columns(NOTE I am showing a different example here)
$ kubectl get pods -o wide
NAME                                READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   IP             NODE                          NOMINATED NODE   READINESS GATES
frontend-6cww6                      1/1     Running   8          10d   <none>           <none>
frontend-dw5s4                      1/1     Running   8          10d   <none>           <none>

  • -o yaml flag , returns a full copy of the Pod manifests from the cluster store. The output is divided into two parts
  1. The desired state (.spec section)
  2. The current observed state(.status section)
$ kubectl get pods my-test-pod -o yaml
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
  creationTimestamp: "2020-01-27T04:51:59Z"
  name: my-test-pod
  namespace: default
  resourceVersion: "302557"
  selfLink: /api/v1/namespaces/default/pods/my-test-pod
  uid: c0a48e63-40c0-11ea-8152-06e53f8e1eee
  - image: nginx
    imagePullPolicy: Always
    name: my-test-pod
    resources: {}
    terminationMessagePath: /dev/termination-log
    terminationMessagePolicy: File
    - mountPath: /var/run/secrets/
      name: default-token-s9cz4
      readOnly: true
  dnsPolicy: ClusterFirst
  enableServiceLinks: true
  priority: 0
  restartPolicy: Always
  schedulerName: default-scheduler
  securityContext: {}
  serviceAccount: default
  serviceAccountName: default
  terminationGracePeriodSeconds: 30
  - effect: NoExecute
    operator: Exists
    tolerationSeconds: 300
  - effect: NoExecute
    operator: Exists
    tolerationSeconds: 300
  - name: default-token-s9cz4
      defaultMode: 420
      secretName: default-token-s9cz4
  - lastProbeTime: null
    lastTransitionTime: "2020-01-27T04:51:59Z"
    status: "True"
    type: Initialized
  - lastProbeTime: null
    lastTransitionTime: "2020-02-07T03:19:36Z"
    status: "True"
    type: Ready
  - lastProbeTime: null
    lastTransitionTime: "2020-02-07T03:19:36Z"
    status: "True"
    type: ContainersReady
  - lastProbeTime: null
    lastTransitionTime: "2020-01-27T04:51:59Z"
    status: "True"
    type: PodScheduled
  - containerID: docker://8b82b56654223e400c8f3f6709dd2636e4e0f6602eeb699e793ca57ee65942d8
    image: nginx:latest
    imageID: docker-pullable://nginx@sha256:ad5552c786f128e389a0263104ae39f3d3c7895579d45ae716f528185b36bc6f
        containerID: docker://74dd6acef0394c71285cd8cd0eb0afbe1fe0fd5b2c6c51c56b4c8ef3eae5bdcd
        exitCode: 0
        finishedAt: "2020-02-04T18:16:08Z"
        reason: Completed
        startedAt: "2020-02-04T14:17:31Z"
    name: my-test-pod
    ready: true
    restartCount: 9
        startedAt: "2020-02-07T03:19:35Z"
  phase: Running
  qosClass: BestEffort
  startTime: "2020-01-27T04:51:59Z"
  • But my pod manifest is just 8 lines long, but the output is more than 8 lines, now the question is from where these extra information comes?
  • Two main sources
  1. Kubernetes pod object has far more properties than what we defined in the manifests. What we dont set explicitly are automatically expanded with default values by Kubernetes.
  2. As mentioned above, here we are getting Pod current observed state as well its desired state.
  • Another great command to get the detailed information about POD
$ kubectl describe pod my-test-pod 
Name:               my-test-pod
Namespace:          default
Priority:           0
PriorityClassName:  <none>
Start Time:         Mon, 27 Jan 2020 04:51:59 +0000
Labels:             <none>
Annotations:        <none>
Status:             Running
    Container ID:   docker://e83d9d4dc1a1f01de04a1ea4eae834c6978b1a607eb47950e2862c353dc6a22e
    Image:          nginx
    Image ID:       docker-pullable://nginx@sha256:70821e443be75ea38bdf52a974fd2271babd5875b2b1964f05025981c75a6717
    Port:           <none>
    Host Port:      <none>
    State:          Running
      Started:      Mon, 27 Jan 2020 04:52:01 +0000
    Ready:          True
    Restart Count:  0
    Environment:    <none>
      /var/run/secrets/ from default-token-s9cz4 (ro)
  Type              Status
  Initialized       True 
  Ready             True 
  ContainersReady   True 
  PodScheduled      True 
    Type:        Secret (a volume populated by a Secret)
    SecretName:  default-token-s9cz4
    Optional:    false
QoS Class:       BestEffort
Node-Selectors:  <none>
Tolerations: for 300s
        for 300s
  Type    Reason     Age    From                                  Message
  ----    ------     ----   ----                                  -------
  Normal  Scheduled  7m10s  default-scheduler                     Successfully assigned default/my-test-pod to
  Normal  Pulling    7m9s   kubelet,  pulling image "nginx"
  Normal  Pulled     7m8s   kubelet,  Successfully pulled image "nginx"
  Normal  Created    7m8s   kubelet,  Created container
  Normal  Started    7m8s   kubelet,  Started container
  • Complete pod.yml file
$ cat pod.yml 
apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
  name: my-test-pod

  - name: my-test-pod
    image: nginx
  • To login into containers running in Pods use kubectl exec
$ kubectl exec -it my-test-pod sh
  • To delete a Pod
$ kubectl delete pod my-test-pod
pod "my-test-pod" deleted

Please join me with my journey by following any of the below links

The 2020 Year of DevOps Automation

Happy New Year Everyone. The last year 2019, I started three programs

100 Days of DevOps

21 Days of Docker – Day 21

21 Days of AWS using Terraform 

Thanks, everyone who participated in these programs, I learned a lot and I believe you guys also got a chance to learn something out of my blogs.

Starting from Feb15, I am starting two new programs

1: DevOps Automation

2: DevOps Certification

1: DevOps Automation: The main idea behind this, we will meet every Saturday at 7 am PST(via meetup) and try to automate any DevOps related process using below tools

  • Python
  • Shell Scripting
  • Awk
  • Sed
  • Regular Expression

I put together a few of the topics here but I am looking for your inputs, please post it under comment section what other technologies you want to automate in 2020, I will definitely add that as a part of the excel sheet

The way this program is different from the earlier program is that so far you only heard me talking during meetup but this time I need more input from your end, please share your ideas and if you want to speak about a particular topic, please let me know I will add you as a speaker for that particular week.

2: DevOps Certification: This is one of the ambitious and my dream project, to get 1 or more certification per month. The way this program works , we will meet every weekend(Saturday/Sunday) for 90min(8:15 am PST – 9:45 am PST). I will assign the topic to everyone for that week(or we can discuss more about it, how we can distribute the topic to everyone depend upon your expertise) and then you need to speak about the particular topic. In this way, you will get more exposure as you are trying to explain the particular topic to n number of people. Here is list of the certifications

NOTE: Nothing set on stone and this list is always modifiable, so looking forward for your inputs

I know after reading all this, you think I am crazy but I know its doable the only thing which is required is

  • Disciplined
  • Motivation

Please join me with my journey by following any of the below links